India’s Reservation Policy in Higher Education Institutions as reported as essay writers

India’s Reservation Policy in Higher Education Institutions The term “Reservation” has been doing the rounds within the Indian media circuit of late owing to the government decision to implement 27% quota for the OBCs in the educational institutions of higher learning. Time has come to study the significance of this matter and see its consequences on the country in the future. When our country achieved independence, a large section of the society was leading a miserable life. They had been exploited for ages and the false beliefs in the society at that time further worsened their condition. The government of that day introduced the concept of reservations so that there would be equal progress of all sections of the society. Over the years, the condition of the people of reserved categories has improved at a fast rate while that of the middle class, general or open category people has remained more or less the same. After nearly 60 years of independence now, general category people have started to feel that they are being subjugated and that the odds have been stacked against them. At a time like this, the government’s decision to bring out legislation to implement a 27% quota for OBCs adds further fuel to the fire. There are a large number of failings in the reasons publicized by the government for implementing this decision. Firstly, the government has rooted its decision in a survey conducted by the Britishers prior to Independence, on the percentage of the OBCs in the population. The reserved category candidates occupy nearly 52% of the government jobs today. Then what is the immediate need to increase the quotas?

Read essay: “The 55 secret Rules in Design and Advertising”.

Though the government would not agree to it, most people feel that this is just another way of wooing the voters. The above stated move by the government brought out the students, resident doctors and even the faculty members of AIIMS and many other hospitals to protest against the government. None of us would hesitate to say that these doctors were inhuman and heartless to have neglected even the emergency services. But isn’t it our government that is to be held responsible for a situation like this. Year after year, the governments of India have been enforcing their will on the people, making us ponder if ours is a democracy at all. In a free and fair country, the candidate who is the most worthy should get the opportunity irrespective of his caste, creed and religion. When caste becomes the criteria for selection, how can one expect to get what is honestly due to him. The government argues that it can balance the equation by increasing the number of seats in the educational institutions. But then it is the quality of education that suffers. Before we come to the higher secondary stage none of us even talks of these quotas. Then the process of applying for the entrance exams for the professional courses starts and the seeds of caste get drilled into our minds. Each time before elections, new reservations start to emerge. Governments are practicing the policy of “divide and rule” with our own people. We hear this even during admissions to under-graduate courses. But is it correct to carry it into the post-graduation phase also? Nowadays the value of professional education has plummeted with a large number of private institutions entering into the stream. The number of engineers coming out every year is beyond the imagination. It is like pampering kids through school and junior college right into the professional education stream, without requiring any effort from them at all. But do we need to do it even at the post graduation level?

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When will a person learn to go all-out for something in life? How far can they go when they have been driven into the industry and have not learnt the art of survival to start with? The decision has indeed drawn flak from many quarters. Getting reservations would be a good thing, but the advantage always lies with the “more privileged” section of these backward castes. For instance, most students from backward castes do not reveal the truth about their parents’ income and get the scholarships for education that they wouldn’t get normally. We must also consider what the future of the candidates who acquire education through reservation will be. At present, since the percentage of quotas is small, the employers don’t bother. If the government implements this decision, nearly 50% of the seats will be under reservation. The employers in future might start dividing candidates into reserved and unreserved categories. There are many merited students even from the OBCs and other reserved categories. Wouldn’t it hurt their sentiments if the employers start to look down at them as they have obtained their degrees through reservation? It is right that some sections have been oppressed for decades, hindering their progress. But the government cannot reverse the process and repair the wrong done in decades with a single move. This decision has occurred mainly as a result of the hype over the high salaries that IIT and IIM graduates have been getting recently. These institutions are seen as places where people can get rich. The government wants to give opportunities to the backward castes to earn similar salaries. But this should not happen at the cost of the quality of education.

There is no doubt that when the quality of education suffers, there won’t be such high salaries anyway. There is one more thing we should look at. The involvement of the courts in various strike-related issues has just lead to the end of these strikes, but it hasn’t been able to provide justice to the protesters. The courts, which we look to for a fair solution to any issue, have only been leaning toward the government. Even in the case of the protest of resident doctors in Andhra Pradesh against increase in the quota for service candidates in the PG course seats, the protesters got nothing but an assurance from the government that the matter will be looked into. The courts in many other cases have been successful only in obtaining assurances and not in delivering justice to the people. This really questions the law which states that no strikes or protests must be staged on an issue when the matter is in judicial review. This law is in favor of the government and must be looked into immediately. There is a strong feeling these days that in the future there won’t be a single general category student going for higher education in India. It looks like the government wants to make it a reality too. It is alright as long as there is no limit on the number of general category students going abroad and banks keep providing huge loans, but there are many who cannot afford to take these loans at high interest rates. The solution to the overall problem cannot be obtained in a short period of time. Firstly, the government should have the latest statistics of different categories of people within the society at the present time. Since India has a large population, more institutions which can impart high quality education to the students should be opened in various parts of India and the institutions that we have at present should be upgraded to meet the rising demands. The government should also do something for the economically backward people of the higher castes who have been left to strive for themselves. Let’s be positive and hope the government will consider all these factors and find a solution that is fair and just for all and not try to impose its will on the people.

Advertising, Design, Main

The 55 secret Rules in Design and Advertising: Business Relationships Part 2

2. Your job includes selling, so better get good at it

In the modern world of business, it is useless to be a creative original thinker unless you can also sell what you create. Management cannot be expected to recognize a good idea unless it is presented to them by a good salesman.

David M. Ogilvy

Clients are possibly your highest hurdle in the creative business – and the most essential one. You can’t always live with them, but you can definitely not live without them. So you only have two possibilities: you can either give up your profession and start collecting stamps instead, or you can choose to become better at selling your work to the client, e.g. by increasing your persuasive skills.

Familiarize with the idea of handling your clients professionally. Put as much effort in selling as you invest in design. Unlike other businesses, where customers have a variety of static products to choose from, the design business is, per definition, the conversion of creativity into a product. You invent things. And if you want to be successful at it, you should learn how to sell them.

3. Presentation is everything

The beauty of our profession contains the predicament of a pool of different tastes. Everybody perceives design differently. Above the line of psychological findings, people are different from each other, thus are attracted to different things.

Let’s say you created six different designs for your clients Corporate Identity. You most certainly have a favorite one – it is the one you know to be best for your clients needs. But you also know that there is a chance of your client not going with that specific design. While he has more insight than you about his business, you have the necessary insight and knowledge about identity design. So how win your client for the best and most significant design?

These are things you shouldn’t do the points you should always follow:

  • Avoid sending drafts out per mail.
  • Never send initial drafts out per e-mail.
  • Unless your job is a website, never bring a laptop to a presentation.
  • do not hand out USB sticks or DVDs / CDs of your drafts.

And this is how you could do it:

  • Always present drafts personally. You have a personal relationship with your client. Give him the respect he deserves! After all, he is not buying tulips for his wife, but an identity for his company.
  • Walk the client through the presentation, do not just throw the drafts at him. Give him some insight about the reasons for every one of your designs. Familiarize him with your thoughts. Use your know-how to make it clear why you chose to do what you did.

The 55 secret Rules in Design and Advertising: Composition Part 3

3. The Rules of Odds and Space

These two rules are best explained in reference to each other. They state that an artwork is more interesting and appealing to the eye when

  1. a) displaying an odd number of objects – in contrast to picturing an even number of objects, and when
  2. b) there is room for the eye to breathe and add its own context.

The rule of odds is quite interesting; it’s not too well known but it does apply. It may be because when you have an odd number of objects, there is always one in the middle (of the objects, not necessarily of the image), adding a sort of frame, or comfort, to the artwork. We can find this out by taking a look at these ads for Harvey Nichols:

You can also see the rule of odds in the following ad; it doesn’t only apply to the whole image, but also to sections of the artwork:

The second part of this rule, the rule of space, states that when you have, say, a picture of a man who is looking to the upper right, you should place him (as the focal point) to the lower left and leave space where his eyes are pointing at. This, as a result, leaves room for the viewer to put their own imagination to work. This rule, if used properly, is of great importance in photography, where you have a greater need of creating an inspiring environment. In advertising, on the other hand, you don’t always want to leave too much room for imagination – you rather want to control what the viewer is imagining.

These ads for Eurostar make quite a good use of space:

Now, that we came this far, I think it’s time for a coffee break. Bookmark this page and grab a coffee.

Back? Let’s go on with the next rule of composition

The 55 secret Rules in Design and Advertising: Composition Part 2

2. The Rule of Thirds

The rule of thirds is sometimes referred to as the golden ratio of design or photography, and again, that’s not too correct. The golden ratio is a mathematical function used in art and architecture, describing the ideal relation of distance between objects to make it pleasing for the eye. The rule of thirds though is more valuable in design, thus a rule of composition.

The rule of thirds states that by dividing an artwork with evenly spaced horizontal and vertical lines – two of each, creating 9 parts -, the intersections of these lines are to be sought after as the most preferred focal points of an artwork or photograph. This is because at these points, the eye has the best perception of the main object in relation to the surrounding objects. By applying the rule of thirds to your artwork, you can stress the focal point and turn a rather dull image into something more interesting.

Let’s take a look at this example. This is a photo of a kid at the beach. It’s shot without any rule or anything of that sort in mind:

Now, let’s see if we can make this photograph more interesting. First, we will apply two horizontal and two vertical lines, dividing the photo into nine equal parts.

Now, let’s play around a bit. What is the focal point of the photo? Where do we want the eye to jump to? I would say it’s the boys head.

So we scale the grid in order to put one of the four intersections right onto our intended focal point, like this:

Now, we just crop the image according to the new borders – and voilà, this is how our photo looks now:

Do you notice the difference? Applying the rule of thirds created a much more interesting image. We can find this rule in practice in advertising, as well. Here are a few examples – this is an ad for the Hard Rock Cafe:

Guess where the intersections of our lines are:

That takes the cake! Another ad for the American Newspaper Association:

As you see, the focal point of the image doesn’t have to be exactly at the intersection of two lines. It works just as well if it’s just in close proximity. Just like these ads for Axe:

Here, too, the most interesting spots are created by using the rule of thirds – but also our next rule of composition, which is:

The 55 secret Rules in Design and Advertising: Composition

This is the second installment in the 55 secret Rules in Design and Advertising. So far, I’ve covered:

  • Part 1: Basic Rules

Set 2: The Rules of Composition in Design

Composition describes the arrangement of the elements of art, or design, in an artwork, using the principles of design. Sometimes, comp is used as a substitute for artwork (mainly in advertising), although that’s actually incorrect, as the artwork is the piece itself and not the placement of the elements inside.

This leads us to the question: What are the elements of design? The answer is the first rule of composition:

1. Know your Stuff

The first rule of composition refers to knowing the elements and principles of design. Let’s take a look at the elements first.

These are the basic components, or ingredients, we use to produce an artwork. They provide the structure for a design. The elements of design are:

  • color – has three properties: hue/tint (red), intensity/purity (bright red), and what is an element of design itself:
  • value – the lightness or darkness (luminance), especially important for monochrome artwork
  • line – we all know a line when we see it – it can be straight or curved, thick or thin, solid or dashed or dotted, blurred or fuzzy, etc. etc.
  • shape – usually two-dimensional (e.g. a square)
  • form – a three-dimensional shape (e.g. a cube)
  • texture – the feel of an object, expressed by a surface quality like flat, glossy, glittery, wet, furry, sandy, leathery, etc.
  • space – the distance between (negative) and taken up by (positive) objects

Looking at our everyday work, we can see that everything we create and use, from a photograph over a vector illustration to a typeface, is made up of these elements.

Now, as we know what we’re talking about, let’s take a look at the principles of design. These refer directly to the elements of design as named above. They are intended to lead the designer in order to create a better artwork. Some tend to see the principles of design as ideals, others as issues; however both as inherent in the best designs. The principles of design are:

  • balance – the way the elements of art are arranged to create stability (symmetry, asymmetry, radial)
  • emphasis – the dominance given to an element in an artwork
  • harmony – a union, or blend, of aesthetically compatible components
  • movement – arranging, and combining, the elements of art to produce the look of action; also in a way that causes the eye to move over the work
  • pattern / rhythm – the repetition of an element; visual tempo creating movement
  • proportion – comparative relation of one part to another
  • tension – tenuous balance, capable of causing anxiety or excitement
  • unity – the combination of all elements into one complete whole, achieved through balancing harmony and variety
  • variety – the opposite of monotony in an artwork; the use of diversity

So there you have them. Knowing the elements and principles of design is of great importance for every designer. We use the elements every day and use the principles to make a composition, so we should know what we’re talking about!

Let’s move on to the 2nd rule of composition.